Liuzza dating beowulf
Having received this answer, the man who talked to him laid his right hand on his head saying, “When this sign shall be given you, remember this present discourse that has passed between us, and do not delay the performance of what you now promise.” Having uttered these words, he is said to have immediately vanished.
So the king perceived that it was not a man, but a spirit, that had appeared to him.
Þær æt hyðe stod hringed-stefna, isig ond ut-fus, æþelinges fær; aledon þa leofne þeoden, beaga bryttan, on bearm scipes, mærne be mæste. Ne hyrde ic cymlicor ceol gegyrwan hilde-wæpnum ond heaðo-wædum, billum ond byrnum; him on bearme læg madma mænigo, þa him mid scoldon on flodes æht feor gewitan.
In the harbour stood a ring-prowed ship, icy, outbound, a nobleman's vessel; there they laid down their dear lord, dispenser of rings, in the bosom of the ship, glorious, by the mast.
Rædwald, whether terrified by his threats, or won over by his gifts, complied with this request, and promised either to kill Edwin, or to deliver him up to the envoys.
A faithful friend of his [Edwin's], hearing of this, went into his chamber, where he was going to bed, for it was the first hour of the night; and calling him out, told him what the king had promised to do with him, adding, “If, therefore, you are willing, I will this very hour conduct you out of this province, and lead you to a place where neither Rædwald nor Æthelfrith shall ever find you.” He answered, “I thank you for your good will, yet I cannot do what you propose, and be guilty of being the first to break the compact I have made with so great a king, when he has done me no harm, nor shown any enmity to me; but, on the contrary, if I must die, let it rather be by his hand than by that of any meaner man.
When he had remained a long time in silent anguish of mind, consumed with inward fire, on a sudden in the stillness of the dead of night he saw approaching a person, whose face and habit were strange to him, at sight of whom, seeing that he was unknown and unlooked for, he was not a little startled.
Frankish coins, which had been inside a purse, suggested a burial date in the 620s, and so the favourite candidate for the occupant's identity is King Rædwald.
Aldwulf, king of that same province, who lived in our time, testifies that this temple had stood until his time, and that he had seen it when he was a boy.” (‘HE’ II, 15).
It was Rædwald's renunciation of Christianity which prompted Bede to call him “noble by birth, though ignoble in his actions”.
Edwin, in his turn, asked, what it was to him, whether he spent the night within doors or abroad.
The stranger, in reply, said, “Do not think that I am ignorant of the cause of your grief, your watching, and sitting alone without.